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Atomic Structure Simulations/Games

Chemistry Standards Unit 1

over 3 years ago

Standard 7.P.2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and properties of matter and that matter is conserved as it undergoes changes.

Conceptual Understanding
7.P.2.A All substances are composed of one or more elements. Elements are pure substances which contain only one kind of atom. The periodic table organizes these elements based on similar properties. Compounds are substances composed of two or more elements. Chemical formulas can be used to describe compounds.

Performance Indicator
7.P.2A.1 Develop and use simple atomic models to illustrate the components of elements (including the relative position and charge of protons, neutrons, and electrons).

Essential Knowledge :


The atom is composed of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons that affect the properties of an atom.

Protons and neutrons have about the same mass.
Protons have a positive charge, while neutrons have no charge.
Electrons have a negative charge.
Protons and neutrons are tightly bound in a tiny nucleus.
The nucleus is located in the center of the atom with the electrons moving in random patterns in the space around the nucleus.

An example of an atomic model for an element:


Performance Indicator
7.P.2A.2 Obtain and use information about elements (including chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, and group/family) to describe the organization of the periodic table. 


Essential Knowledge

● The periodic table is used to organize all of the elements.

● Every periodic table will have a square for each element with the element name, chemical/element symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. (Students should be able to locate all on the PTE.) 

Chemical/element symbols

○ Each element has a different symbol.
○ Symbols are written with one, two, or three letters.
○ The first letter is always capitalized.
○ Students should be familiar with following element names and symbols:

Element

Symbol

Element

Symbol

Hydrogen

H

Silicon

Si

Carbon

C

Copper

Cu

Nitrogen

N

Aluminum

Al

Oxygen

O

Silver

Ag

Chlorine

Cl

Gold

Au

Magnesium

Mg

Iron

Fe

Zinc

Zn

Helium

He

Calcium

Ca

Potassium

K

Phosphorus

P

Sodium

Na

Iodine

I

Fluorine

F

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Atomic Number

● The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons.
● The atomic number is a whole number.
● The atomic number is always the same for a given element.
● The elements on the periodic table are arranged numerically by increasing atomic number.

Atomic Mass

● The atomic mass is an average sum of the number of the protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.

● Since the atomic mass of an element is an average, it is usually not a whole number.

Periods

● A horizontal row on the periodic table is called a period.

Families

● Families, also called groups, are vertical columns of elements on the periodic table ● They are numbered 1-18.
● Elements in the same family have similar properties.

Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids

Metalloids

  • There is a zigzag line on the right side of the periodic table that separates the metals from the nonmetals. Metalloids are found along this zigzag line.

  • Elements identified as metalloids have properties (characteristics) of both metals and nonmetals. 

Metals
●  Metals are generally located on the left side of the zigzag line.
●  Examples of metals are: Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), and Aluminum (Al).

●  The majority of elements are metals.


Nonmetals

Nonmetals, with the exception of Hydrogen (H), are located on the right side of the zigzag line on the periodic table.

● Examples of nonmetals are: Chlorine (Cl), Oxygen (O), Sulfur (S), and Iodine (I).